It consists of dried leaves of cultivated or wild plants of Cannabis sativa Linn. (Fam. Cannabinaceae) , an annual, erect, dioecious herb, one to two m high, found almost throughout the year, practically naturalised in the Sub-Himalayan tracts in India and abundantly found in waste lands from Punjab eastwards to Bengal and extending Southwards.
Sanskrit : Bhanga, Midani
Assamese : Bhan, Bhang
Bengali : Bhang, Sidhi
English : Indian Hemp,
Gujrati : Bhang
Hindi : Bhaang, Bhanga
Kannada : Bhangigida, Ganjagida
Kashmiri : Pang, Bangi
Malayalam : Kanchavu
Marathi : Bhang, Ganja
Oriya : Bhanga, Ganjei
Punjabi : Bhang
Tamil : Ganja
Telugu : Ganjayi
Urdu : Qinaab, Bhang
Leaves palmately compound, leaflets linear, lanceolate with serrate margins, 5-20 cm long, pointed, narrow at base, upper surface dark green and rough, lower pale, downy, leaves of female plants longer than the male, odour, strong and characteristic, taste, slightly acrid.
Transverse section of leaves and bracts, shows dorsiventral surface, upper epidermis with unicellular, pointed, curved, conical trichomes with enlarged bases containing cystoliths of calcium carbonate, mesophyll contains cluster crystals of calcium oxalate in many cells consisting of usually one layer of palisade cell and spongy tissue, trichomes on lower epidermis conical, longer, 340-500µ but without cystoliths, numerous glandular trichomes, sessile or with a multicellular stalk and a head of about eight radiating, club-shaped cells secreting oleo-resin, present in the lower epidermis especially on mid-rib, bracteoles with undifferentiated mesophyll and on lower surface bear numerous glandular trichomes.
CONSTITUENTS – Resin (Cannabinols, particularly tetrahydrocannabinol).
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Tikshna
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Dipana, Grihi, Kaphahara, Nidrijanana, Picana, Vijikara, Vikvrdhana, Vyaviyi
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Jitiphalidi Churna, Madaninanda Modaka
THERAPEUTIC USES – Agnimindya, Anidri, Atisira, Klaibya, Grahaniroga
DOSE – 125-250 mg of the drug in powder form.
Note:-Sodhana of this drug to be done before use.