Plants

Cinnamomum zeylanicum

TWAK
Twak is the dried inner bark (devoid of cork and cortex) of the coppiced shoots of stem of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. (Fam. Lauraceae), a moderate sized evergreen tree usually attaining a height of 6-7 .5 m, cultivated on the Western Ghats and adjoining hills, bark collected during April-July and October-December.
SYNONYMS
Sanskrit : Dirusiti
Assamese : Dalcheni
Bengali : Daruchini, Darchini
English : Cinnamon bark
Gujrati : Dalchini
Hindi : Dalchini
Kannada : Dalchini Chakke
Kashmiri : Dalchini, Dalchin
Malayalam : Karuvapatta, Ilavarngathely
Marathi : Dalchini
Oriya : Dalechini, Guda twak
Punjabi : Dalchini, Darchini
Tamil : Lavangapattai, Karuvapattai
Telugu : Lavangapatta, Dalchini chekka
Urdu : Darchini
DESCRIPTION
a) Macroscopic
Bark pieces about 0.5 mm thick, brittle, occurs as single or double, closely packed compound quills, upto a metre or more in length and upto about 1 cm in diameter, outer surface, dull yellowish-brown, marked with pale wavy longitudinal lines with occasional small scars or holes, inner surface darker in colour, striated with longitudinally elongated reticulation, fracture, splintery, free from all but traces of cork, odour, fragrant, taste, sweet, aromatic with sensation of warmth.
b) Microscopic
Transverse section of bark (devoid of cork and c.ortex) shows except at certain places pericyclic sclerenchyma, 3 or 4 rows of isodiametric cells, sometimes tangentially elongated, inner and radial walls often being thicker than the outer, some containing starch grains, small groups of pericylic fibres embedded at intervals in the sclerenchyma, phloem of tangential bands of sieve tissue alternating with parenchyma, and containing axially elongated secreting cells containing volatile oil or mucilage, phloem fibres with very thick walls, upto 30 µ in diameter, isolated or in short tangential rows, sieve tubes narrow with transverse sieve plates, collapsed in outer periphery, medullary rays of isodiametric cells, mostly 2 cells wide, cortical parenchyma and medullary rays containing small starch grains mostly below 10 µ in diameter, minute acicular crystals of calcium oxalate present.
CONSTITUENTS – Essential oil, tannin and mucilage.
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Madhura, Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Ruksha, Tikshna
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Kaphavitahara, Rucya, Vishaghna, Kanthasuddhikara
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Sitopalidi Churna, Caturjita Churna
THERAPEUTIC USES – Arsa, Hridroga, Krimiroga(Antihelmenthic), Trishi, Mukhasosha, Kanthamukharoga,
Pinasa, Vastiroga
DOSE – 1-3 g of the drug in powder form.