Ficus bengalensis

Nyagrodha consists of dried mature stem bark of Ficus bengalensis Linn. (Fam. Moraceae) , a large branching tree with numerous aerial roots occurring all over India.
Sanskrit : Vata
Assamese : Vat, Ahat, Vatgach
Bengali : Bot
English : Banyan tree
Gujrati : Vad, Vadalo
Hindi : Badra, Bargad, Bada
Kannada : Aala, Aladamara, Vata
Kashmiri : Bad
Malayalam : Peraal
Marathi : Vael
Oriya : Bata, Bara
Punjabi : Bhaur
Tamil : Aalamaram, Aalam
Telugu : Marri
Urdu : Bargad, Bad
a) Macroscopic
Mature stern bark grey with thin, closely adhered ashy white, light bluish-green or grey patches, bark fiat or slightly curve, thickness varies with age of tree : externally rough due to presence of horizontal furrows and lenticels, mostly circular and prominent, fracture short in outer two thirds of bark while inner portion shows a fibrous fracture taste, astringent
b) Microscopic
Transverse section of mature bark shows compressed cork tissue and dead elements of secondary cortex consisting of mostly stone cells and thin-walled, compressed elements of cortex cork cells rectangular, thick-walled and containing brownish content, secondary cortex wide, forming more than half of thickness of bark, composed of large groups of stone cells and parenchymatous cells, stone cells vary in shape, parenchymatous cells thin-walled and somewhat cubical to oval few in number and occur between groups of stone cells, some of cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, starch grains and tannin, secondary phloem composed of a few sieve elements parenchyma, fibres, stone cells and latex tube alternating with medullary rays, sieve elements compressed in .outer region of bark while intact m inner region, few thick-walled phloem parenchyma occurring in between patches of phloem fibres and stone cells, stone cells similar to those present in secondary cortex, some phloem cells contain prismatic calcium oxalate crystals also, present in fibres forming crystal fibres,
medullary rays 2-5 seriate, composed of thick-walled, circular to oval cells few cells also converted into stone cells and some have pitted walls, also containing plenty of starch grains, mostly rounded, rarely oval or semi-lunar in shape, simple as well as compound type, compound starch grains consist of 2-3 components, cambium composed of a few layers of small, rectangular, thin-walled cells.
CONSTITUENTS – Tannins, glycosides and flavonoids.
Rasa : Kashiya
Guna : Guru, Ruksha
Virya : Shita(Cold)
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Dihaghna, Mhutrasangrahaniya, Stambhana, Varnya, Vranipaha, Kaphapittajita, Yonidoshahrit
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Nyagrodhidi Churna, Nyagrodhidi Kvitha Churna
THERAPEUTIC USES – Diha, Prameha, Raktapitta, Trishni, Visarpa, Vrana, Yonidosha
DOSE – 3-6 g of the drug in powder form.