Yashti consists of dried, unpeeled, stolon and root of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, (Fam. Leguminosae) , a tall perennial herb, upto 2 m high found cultivated in Europe. Persia, Afghanistan.
Sanskrit : Yashtimadhhuka, Yashtiki, Madhhuka, Madhuyashti, Yashtyihvi
Assamese : Jesthimadhu, Yeshtmadhu
Bengali : Yashtimadhu
English : Liquorice root
Gujrati : Jethimadha, Jethimard, Jethimadh
Hindi : Mulethi, Mulathi, Muleti, Jethimadhu, Jethimadh
Kannada : Jestamadu, Madhuka, Jyeshtamadhu, Atimadhura
Kashmiri : Multhi
Malayalam : Irattimadhuram
Marathi : Jesthamadh
Oriya : Jatimadhu, Jastimadhu
Punjabi : Jethimadh, Mulathi
Tamil : Athimadhuram
Telugu : Atimadhuramu
Urdu : Mulethi, Asl-us-sus
Stolon consists of yellowish brown or dark brown outer layer, externally longitudinally wrinkled, with occasional small buds and encircling scale leaves, smoothed transversely, cut surface shows a cambium ring about one-third of radius from outer surface and a small central pith, root similar without a pith, fracture, coarsely fibrous in bark and splintery in wood, odour, faint and characteristic, taste, sweetish.
Stolon- transverse section of stolon shows cork of 10-20 or more layers of tabular cells, outer layers with reddish-brown amorphous contents, inner 3 or 4 rows having thicker, colourless walls, secondary cortex usually of 1-3 layers of radially arranged parenchymatous cells containing isolated prisms of calcium oxalate, secondary phloem a broad band, cells of inner part cellulosic and outer lignified, radially arranged groups of about 10-50 fibres, surrounded by a sheath of parenchyma cells, each usually containing a prism of calcium oxalate about 10-35 µ long, cambium form tissue of 3 or more layers of cells, secondary xylem distinctly radiate with medullary rays, 3-5 cells wide, vessels about 80-200 µ in diameter with thick, yellow, pitted, reticulately thickend walls, groups of lignified fibres with crystal sheaths similar to those of phloem, xylem parenchyma of two kinds, those between the vessels having thick pitted walls without inter-cellular spaces, the remaining with thin walls, pith of parenchymatous cells in longitudinal rows, with inter-cellular spaces.
Root-transverse section of root shows structure closely resembling that of stolon except that no medulla is present, xylem tetrarch , usually four principal medullary rays at right angles to each other, in peeled drug cork shows phelloderm and sometimes without secondary phloem all parenchyrnatous tissues containing abundant, simple, oval or rounded starch grains, 2-20 µ in length.
CONSTITUENTS – Glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid, asparagine, sugars, resin and starch
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Madhura
Guna : Guru, Snigdha
Virya : Shita(Cold)
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Balya, Cakshushya, Vrishya, Varnya, Vitapittajit, Raktaprasidana
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Elidi Guiki, Yashtimadhuka Taila, Madhuyashtyidi Taila
THERAPEUTIC USES – Kasa, Kshaya, Svarabheda, Vitarakta, Vrana
DOSE – 2-4 g of the drug in powder form.