Plants

Mangifera indica (Stem Bark)

AMRA (Stem Bark)
Amra consists of dried stem bark of Mangifera indica Linn. (Fam. Anacardiaceae), a tree found wild or cultivated throughout the country.
 
SYNONYMS –
Sansk. : Amra
Assam. : Aam
Beng. : Ama, Am
Eng. : Mango
Guj. : Ambo
Hindi. : Ama
Kan. : Mavu
Kash. : —
Mal. : Mavu
Mar. : Amba
Ori. : Am, Amba
Punj. : Amb
Tam. : Mamaram
Tel. : Amaramu
Urdu. : Aam
 
DESCRIPTION –
 
a) Macroscopic:
Drug occurs in pieces of variable size and thickness, surface rough due to longitudinal cracks, fissures and scattered, raised lenticels, greyish to dark brown externally and yellowish-white to reddish internally; odour, pleasant; taste, astringent.
 
b) Microscopic:
Mature bark, shows a wide cork consisting of tangentially elongated cells, a few outer layers brown and inner lighter in colour, at a few places lenticels appear; secondary cortex almost absent; secondary phloem wide, consisting of sieve elements, parenchyma and phloem fibres, traversed by medullary rays, resin canals and yellow coloured elongated, tannin sacs abundantly scattered throughout phloem region; stone cells thick walled, lignified, rectangular with wide lumen also present in single or in groups; starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in number of phloem cells; phloem fibres in groups composed of 2-15 or more cells, long and thick walled, phloem rays 1-3 seriate, 3 seriate rays more common, somewhat wavy, thinwalled, radially elongated and filled with crystals of calcium oxalate and simple, round starch grains, measuring 12-16µ in diameter.
Powder – Brown; shows fragments of cork cells, stone cells, single or in groups; phloem
fibres, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; simple, spherical to elliptical, starch grains
measuring 12 – 16 µ in diameter.
 
CONSTITUENTS – Tannins – Protocatechuic Acid, Catechin, Mangiferin, Alanine, Glycine, s -Aminobutyric acid, Kinic and Shikimic Acids.
 
PROPERTIES AND ACTION –
Rasa : Kashaya
Guna :
Laghu, Ruksha
Virya : sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Grahi, Vranaropana, Kaphapittasamaka, Rucya
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Nyagrodhadi Churna, Nyagrodhadi Kvatha/Curna,Candanasava, Grahanimihira Taila, Mhutra Sangrhaniya Kashaya Churna.
THERAPEUTIC USES – Atisara, Vrana, Agnimandya, Grahani, Prameha, Yoni Roga
DOSE – 3-6 g. of powder,25-50 g. for decoction.