Plants

Ocimum sanctum (Leaf)

TULASI (Leaf)
Tulasi consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Fam. Lamiaceae), an erect, 30-60 cm high, much branched annual herb, found throughout the country.
 
SYNONYMS
Sanskrit : Bana Tulasi, Krishnatulasi, Surasa
Assamese : Tulasi
Bengali : Tulasi
English : Sacred Basil, Holy Basil
Gujrati : Tulasi, Tulsi
Hindi : Tulasi
Kannada : Tulasi
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Tulasi
Marathi : Tulas
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Tulasi
Tamil : Thulasi, Tulasi
Telugu : Tulasi
Urdu : Raihan, Tulsi
 
DESCRIPTION
 
a) Macroscopic
Leaves 2.5-5 cm long, 1.6-3.2 cm wide, elliptic-oblong, obtuse or acute, entire or serrate, pubescent on both surfaces, petiolate, thin, petiole 1.5-3 cm long, hairy; odour, aromatic; taste, characteristic.
 
b) Microscopic
Leaf-
Petiole – shows cordate outline, consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled, oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes; covering trichomes multicellular, uniseriate 1-8 celled long, rarely slightly reflexed at tip; glandular trichomes short, sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk, and 2-8 celled, balloon-shaped head, enclosed in a cuticular bladder, measuring 22-27 µ dia., upper epidermis, followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells; lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells; three vascular bundles situated centrally, middle one larger than the other two, consisting of xylem and phloem.
Midrib – epidermis, trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole, except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.
Lamina – epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces; stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis; palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin; stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface; palisade ratio 3.8; vein islet number 31-33.
Powder – Light-green; shows fragments of polygonal, less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view, covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces, palisade and spongy parenchyma, anomocytic and diacytic stomata.

CONSTITUENTS
– Essential Oil (Carvacrol, Caryophyllene, Nerol and Camphene etc.,).

PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksha, Tikshna
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Dipani, Hridya, Kaphahara, Pittahara, Vatahara, Krimighna

 
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Manasamitra Vataka, Tribhuvana Kirti Rasa, Mukta Pancamrit Rasa, Mahajvarankusa Rasa.
 
THERAPEUTIC USES – Aruci, svasa, Hikka, Kasa, Krimiroga, Kushtha, Pratisyaya, Parsvashula
 
DOSE – 2-3 g. of the drug in powder form.