Plants

Onosma bracteatum

GOJIHVA (Aerial Part)
Gojihva consists of dried leaf and stem portion of Onosma bracteatum Wall. (Fam. Boraginaceae); a perennial, hirsute or hispid herb, sparsely distributed in North Western Himalayas at altitudes of 3,500-4,500 m.

SYNONYMS –
Sansk. : Darvipatra, Vrishajihva, Kharaparnini
Assam. : —
Beng. : Gojika Sak, Gojialata, Dadisha
Eng. : —
Guj. : Bhonpathari, Galajibhi
Hindi. : Gaujaban, Gojiya
Kan. : Shankha Huli, Aakalanalige, Gojaba
Mal. : Kozhuppu
Mar. : Govjaban, Paatharee
Ori. : Kharsan, Kharaptra
Punj. : Kazban
Tam. : Kharaptra, Dharviptra, Kozha
Tel. : Yeddunaluka
Urdu. : Gaozaban
DESCRIPTION –

a) Macroscopic:
Stem – Cut pieces available in 5-9 cm long and 3.2 to 4.7 cm in dia., flattened, erect, stout; rough due to white, hard, hispid hairs and cicatrices, and longitudinal wrinkles; colour greenish-yellow; fracture, short; odour and taste not characteristic.
Leaf – Lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 12-30 cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm broad, acuminate tubercle-based hispid hairs present on both surfaces; greenish to light yellow on top and white beneath.

b) Microscopic:
Stem – shows single-layered epidermis, covered with thick cuticle, some epidermal cells elongate to form long, warty, tubercle-based unicellular hairs, cortex differentiated in two zones, 5-7 layered outer collenchyrna, 3-4 layered inner parenchymatous cells, consisting of thin-walled, round to oval cells; phloem composed of usual elements; phloem fibres absent; xylem consisting of usual elements, vessels mostly solitary or rarely 2-3 in groups having spiral thickening, and fibres and tracheids having blunt tips and simple pits; xylem ray not distinct: pith consisting of round, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells.
Leaf –
Midrib -single layered epidermis with thick cuticle and long warty, tubercle-based unicellular hairs present on both surfaces followed by 5-7 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers parenchymatous cortical cells; vascular bundle situated centrally.
Lamina – isobilateral, single layered epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle, long warty, tubercle-based, simple, unicellular hairs present on both surfaces; palisade 2 layered, spongy parenchyma 8-10 layered, stomata paracytic
Powder – Greenish-brown; shows groups of oval to polygonal, thin-walled straight epidermal cells; spiral vessels; a few fibres entire or in pieces, elongated with blunt tips; long warty, tubercle-based unicellular hairs and a few paracytic stomata.

CONSTITUENTS – Tannin and Sugars.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION –
Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya
Guna : Laghu
Virya : sita
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Grahi, Hridya, Kaphahara, Pittahara, Vatala

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Manasa Mitra Vataka, Gojihvadi Kvatha

THERAPEUTIC USES – Raktapitta, Kushtha, Jvara, Swasha, Kasa, Aruci, Prameha, Raktavikara,Vrana, Danta Roga
DOSE – 3-6 g. of the drug in powder form.