Plants

Oxalis corniculata

CHANGERI (Whole Plant)
Cangeri consists of dried whole plant of Oxalis corniculata Linn. (Fam. Oxalidaceae); a small annual or perennial, more or less erect herb with creeping or subterranean stem, 6-25 cm high, found throughout warmer parts of the country and also in all tropical and temperate climate, growing upto an elevation of 3000 m in North-West Himalayas.

SYNONYMS –
Sansk. : Cangeri, Amlapatrika
Assam. : Chengeritenga
Beng. : Amrul
Eng. : Indian Sorrel
Guj. : Ambolee, Changeri, Teen Panaki, Rukhadi
Hindi. : Tinpatiya, Changeri, Ambilosa
Kan. : Pullamouradi, Sivargee, Purachi Soppu
Mal. : Pulliparel
Mar. : Ambutee, Ambatee, Ambti, Bhui Sarpati
Ori. : —
Punj. : Khatkal, Khattibootee, Khatmittha
Tam. : Puliyarai
Tel. : Pulichinta
Urdu. : Changeri, Teen Patiya

DESCRIPTION –

a) Macroscopic:
Root – Dark brownish, thin, about 1-2 mm thick, branched, rough, soft; no odour and taste.
Stem – Creeping, brownish-red, soft, very thin, easily breakable; no odour and taste.
Leaf – Palmately compound, trifoliate; petiole-green, thin, about 3-9 cm long, cylindrical, pubescent; leaflet-green, 1-2 cm long, obcordate, glabrous, sessile or sub sessile, base cuneate; taste, somewhat sour.
Flower -Yellow, axillary, sub-umbellate.
Fruit – Capsules cylindrical, tomentose.
Seed -Tiny, dark brown, numerous, broadly ovoid transversely striate.

b) Microscopic:
Root – Shows 3-4 layers of cork, composed of thin-walled rectangular cells, brownish in appearance; cortex, a wide zone, consisting of rectangular and oval, thin-walled parenchymatous cells filled with simple starch grains, yellowish pigment and tannin; inner cortical cells rectangular and polygonal, smaller in size than miter ones; cortex followed by thin strips of phloem consisting of sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma, cambium not distinct; xylem consists of vessels, tracheids, fibres and xylem parenchyma; vessels cylindrical, pitted some with tail-like projection at one end; tracheids pitted with pointed ends; a few starch grains simple, round to oval measuring 3-11µ in dia., present scattered throughout the region.
Stem – Shows single layered epidermis, composed of rectangular to oval cells, some ofwhich are elongated to become unicellular covering trichomes; cortex consists of 4-5 layers of thin-walled, circular and polyhedral parenchymatous cells; endodermis single layered of thin-walled rectangular cells; pericycle composed of two or three layers of squarish and polygonal sclerenchymatous cells; vascular bundles 6-7 in number, arranged in a ring, composed of a few elements of phloem towards outer side and xylem towards inner side; xylem composed of pitted vessels, tracheids, fibres and xylem parenchyma; central region occupied by pith composed of thin-walled, parenchymatous cells, a few simple, round to oval starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in dia, scattered throughout the region.
Leaf –
Petiole – Shows rounded or plano-convex outline consisting of single layered epidermis of rectangular or circular, thin-walled cells; cortex 3-4 layers of thin-walled, circular, oval or polygonal parenchymatous cells, generally filled with green pigment; endodermis single layered followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous pericycle, less developed towards upper side of petiole; vascular bundles 5 in number, arranged in a ring, consisting of phloem towards outer side and xylem towards inner side; centre occupied by a small pith; a few simple, round to oval starch grains, measuring 3-11 µ in dia., scattered throughout.
Lamina – Shows single layered epidermis on upper and lower surfaces, composed of rectangular cells; covering trichomes unicellular; palisade single layered composed of thin-walled, columnar cells, filled with green pigment; below palisade 2-3 layers of thinwalled, spongy parenchyma consisting of circular to oval cells filled with green pigment; stomata paracytic.
Powder- Greenish-brown; shows fragments of trichomes, parenchymatous, sclerenchymatous cells, fibres, epidermis showing irregular cell walls in surface view; a few simple, rounded to oval starch grains, measuring 3-11 µ in diameter.

CONSTITUENTS – Vitamin C, Carotene, Tartaric Acid, Citric Acid and Malic Acid.
PROPERTIES AND ACTION –
Rasa : Amla, Kashaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksha
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Amla
Karma : Dipana, Grahi, Kaphahara, Rucikara, Vatahara, Pittakara, Agnivardhaka
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Cangeri Ghrita
THERAPEUTIC USES – Grahani, Arsa, Kushtha, Atisara
DOSE – 5-10 ml. (Svarasa).
It is also used externally.