Piper longum (Fruit)

Pippali consists of the dried, immature, catkin-like fruits with bracts of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae), a slender, aromatic climber with perennial woody roots, occurring in hotter parts of India from central Himalayas to Assam upto

 lower hills of West Bengal and ever green forests of Western ghats as wild, and also cultivated in North East and many parts of the South.


piper longum


Sanskrit : Kana, Magadhi, Magadha, Krishna, saundi
Assamese : Pippali
Bengali : Pipul
English : Long Pepper
Gujrati : Lindi Peeper, Pipali
Hindi : Pipar
Kannada : Hippali
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Pippali
Marathi : Pimpali, Lendi Pimpali
Oriya : Pipali, Pippali
Punjabi : Magh, Magh Pipali
Tamil : Arisi Tippali, Thippili
Telugu : Pippalu
Urdu : Filfil Daraz


a) Macroscopic
Fruit greenish-black to black, cylindrical, 2.5 to 5 cm long and 0.4 to 1 cm thick, consisting of minute sessile fruits, arranged around an axis; surface rough and composite; broken surface shows a central axis and 6 to 12 fruitlets arranged around an axis; taste, pungent producing numbness on the tongue; odour, aromatic.


piper longum



b) Microscopic
Catkin shows 6 to 12 fruits, arranged in circle on a central axis, each having an outer epidermal layer of irregular cells filled with deep brown content and covered externally with a thick cuticle; mesocarp consists of larger cells, usually collapsed, irregular in shape and thin-walled; a number of stone cells in singles or in groups present; endocarp and seed coat fused to form a deep zone, outer layer of this zone
composed of thin-walled cells and colourless, inner layer composed of tangentially elongated cells, having reddish-brown content; most of endocarp filled with starch grains, round to oval measuring 3 to 8 µ in dia.

Powder – Deep moss green, shows fragments of parenchyma, oval to elongated stone cells, oil globules and round to oval, starch grains, measuring 3 to 8 µ in dia.

CONSTITUENTS – Essential Oil and Alkaloids

Rasa : Madhura, Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Snigdha
Virya : Anusna
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Dipana, Hridya, Kaphahara, Rucya, Tridoshahara, Vatahara, Vrishya, Rasayana, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Amritarishta, Ayaskriti, Cyavanaprasa Avaleha, Gudapippali, Asvagandhadyarishta, Kumaryasava, Candanasava, siva Gutika, Kaisora Guggulu

THERAPEUTIC USES – shula, Arsha, Gulma, Hikka, Kasa, Krimi, Kshaya, Kushtha, Pliha Roga, Prameha, Swasha, Trisna, Udara Roga, Ama Vata, Amadosha, Jvara

DOSE – 1-3 gm.