Prisniparni consists of dried whole plant of Uraria picta Desv. (Fam. Fabaceae), an erect, under shrub upto 90 cm high, distributed throughout the country.
Sanskrit : Citraparni, Kalasi, Dhavani, Prithakparni, Shrigalavinna
Assamese : —
Bengali : Salpani, Chhalani, Chakule
English : —
Gujrati : Pithavan
Hindi : Pithavan, Dabra
Kannada : Murele Honne, Ondele honne, Prushniparni
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Orila
Marathi : Pithvan, Prushnipamee
Oriya : Prushnipamee, Shankarjata
Punjabi : Detedarnee
Tamil : Oripai
Telugu : Kolakuponna
Urdu : —
Root – Occur in pieces of varying size, thickness of 1 to 2 cm, gradually tapering, tough,woody, cylindrical; externally light yellow to buff, internally pale yellow; surface bearing fine longitudinal striations; fracture, splintery or fibrous; taste, slightly acrid.
Stem – About 8.0 to 16.0 cm long, 0.2 to 0.4 cm in diameter, in cut pieces; cylindrical, branched, pubescent, external surface light yellow to brown; transversely cut and smoothened surface shows buff-white colour, mature stem longitudinally wrinkled, leaf scar present at nodes; fracture, fibrous.
Leaf – Very variable, imparipinnate, upto 20 cm or more long, upto 2 cm wide; leaflets on the upper part of the stem 5 to 7, rigidly sub-coriaceous, linear-oblong, acute, blotched with white; glabrous above, finely reticulately veined and minutely pubescent beneath, base rounded; leaflets on the lower part of the stem 1 to 3, sub-orbicular or oblong.
Root – Shows 5 or 6 layers of thin-walled, tabular, regularly arranged cork cells; cork cambium single layered; secondary cortex composed of 4 to 6 layers of oval, tangentially arranged, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells, a few fibres present singly or in groups; secondary phloem composed of sieve elements, parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays; sieve elements somewhat collapsed towards periphery but intact in inner phloem region; phloem parenchyma composed of rounded to somewhat oval cells, larger towards periphery; fibres thick-walled, lignified with narrow lumen and tapering ends;phloem rays 1 to 5 cells wide, their cells being oval or rectangular in the portion nearer the wood but broader towards their distal ends; secondary xylem composed of vessels, tracheids, fibres, crystal fibres and parenchyma traversed by xylem rays; vessel very few, mostly confined to inner and outer part of xylem; fibres similar to those of phloem fibres and arranged in close set concentric bands; in isolated preparation vessels are cylindrical, pitted with transverse to oblique perforation; tracheids possess bordered pits; xylem parenchyma mostly rectangular with simple pits; xylem ray cells isodiametric showing simple pits; starch grains simple, round to oval, measuring 6 to 17µ in dia., distributed throughout parenchymatous cells of secondary cortex, phloem and xylem; prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in crystal fibres, as well as in many parenchymatous cells of secondary cortex, phloem and ray cells.
Stern – Shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, a few epidermal cells elongate outwards forming papillae; cortex 8 to 10 cells wide, consisting of oval to circular, thin walled, parenchymatous cells; groups of pericyclic fibres present in the form of discontinuous ring; phloem consisting of usual elements except phloem fibres; phloem rays 2 to 4 cells wide; xylem consisting of usual elements; vessels mostly simple pitted; fibres simple with blunt tips; xylem rays 1 to 4 cells wide and 2 to 8 cells in height; pith wide, consisting of thin-walled, round to oval parenchymatous cells.
Midrib – single layered epidermis on either surfaces covered with striated cuticle having a few unicellular or bicellular, hooked or straight and pointed tipped hairs present on bothsurfaces but more on lower surface; collenchyma 2 or 3 layered, followed by 2 layers of parenchyma cells; single row of pericyclic fibers present on both sides; vascular bundle located centrally.
Lamina – shows single layered epidermis on either surfaces, a few unicellular or bicellular, hooked or straight, pointed tipped hairs present on lower surface; mesophyll differentiated into single layered palisade and spongy parenchyma; spongy parenchyma cells oval to rounded having small intercellular spaces; numerous paracytic stomata present on lower surface; stomatal index 27 to 36 on lower surface; palisade ratio 4 or 5; vein-islet number 29 to 32 per sq. mm.; vascular bundle present centrally.
Powder – Greenish-yellow; shows simple pitted vessels; fragments of fibres, tracheids, parenchyma cells; pieces of hairs; palisade cells; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; epidermal cells wavy walled in surface view showing paracyic stomata and starch grains simple, round to oval, measuring 6 to 17 µ in dia.
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Madhura, Amla, Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Sara
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Dipana, Sangrahi, Tridoshahara, Vatahara, Vrishya, Sothahara, Angamardaprasamana, Sandhaniya, Jivanu Nasaka, Balavardhaka
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Amritarishta, Angamarda Prasamana Kasaya Churna,Dasamhula Taila, Vyaghritaila, Madhyama NarayanaTaila, siraha shuladi Vajra Rasa, Dasamhularisha.
THERAPEUTIC USES – Atisara, Chhardi(vomiting), Daha, Jvara, Kasa, Raktatisara, Raktavikara, Swasha, Unmada, Vatarakta, Vrana, Vataroga, Raktarsa, Kaphajamadatyaya Trishna, Nataprabala, Ekahika Jvara, Pilla (Netra Roga) Asthibhagna
DOSE – 20-50 gm powder for decoction.