Usira consists of dried fragrant fibrous roots of Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash (Fam. Poaceae); a densely tufted grass, found throughout the plains and lower hills of the country, especially on the banks of rivers and rich marshy soil, ascending to an altitude of 1200 m.
Sansk : Virana, Adhaya, Sevya
Assam : Usir, Virina
Beng : Venarramula, Khaskhas
Eng : Cuscus Grass
Guj : Sugandhi Valo, Valo
Hindi : Khasa, Gandar, Bena, Khas
Kan : Mudivala, Baladaberu, Lamanch, Bala Deberu
Kash : —
Mal : Ramaceam, Vetiver, Lamajja, Ramacham
Mar : Bala, Vala
Ori : Ushira, Benachera
Punj : Panni, Khas
Tam : Vetiver, Vilamichaver
Tel : Vetivelu, Vettiveru
Urdu : Khas
Clusters of wiry roots upto 2 mm in diameter, minute, longitudinally grooved; colour varies from cream, grey or light yellow to brown; fracture, short and splintery; odour, strong aromatic; taste, slightly bitter.
Root shows an epidermis consisting of tangentially elongated cells having brownish content, followed by a layer of hypodermis, consisting of thin-walled cells, similar to epidermis; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of thick-walled, lignified sclerenchymatous cells towards periphery and aerenchymatous cells towards centre; endoderm is, single layered of barrel-shaped cells with highly thickened inner walls;
pericycle many layered with thick-walled, sclerenchymatous cells enclosing radial vascular bundles arranged in a ring; simple, round to oval, starch grains measuring 8-12 µ in diameter present in aerenchyma, pericycle and pith cells.
CONSTITUENTS – Essential Oil.
PROPERTIES AND ACTION –
Rasa : Madhura, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Snigdha
Virya : sita
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Pacana, Pittaghna, Stambhana, Vataghna, Dabaklantihara, Kaphapttahrit
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Usirasava, Yogarajaguggulu, sadanga Kvatha Churna
THERAPEUTIC USES – Jvara, Trishna, Mhutrakrcchra, Vrana
DOSE – 3-6 g. of the drug in powder form for infusion