Plants

Vitex negundo (Leaf)

Nirgundi consists of dried leaf of Vitex negundo Linn. (Fam. Verbenaceae); a large aromatic shrub or a small tree, upto 4.5 m in height, common throughout the country ascending to an altitude of 1500 m in the outer Himalayas. It is common in waste places around villages, river banks, moist localities and in the deciduous forests.

SYNONYMS –
Sansk. : Sinduvara, Samphalika, Nila
Assam. : Aslak
Beng. : Nirgundi, Nishinda
Eng. : Five Leaved Chaste tree
Guj. : Nagod
Hindi. : Nirgundi, Sinduar, Sambhalu
Kan. : Lakkigida, Nekkigida
Kash. : —
Mal. : Indranee, Nirgundi
Mar. : Nirgundi
Ori. : —
Punj. : Sambhalu, Banna
Tam. : Karunochchi, Nocchi
Tel. : Nallavavilli, Vavili
Urdu. : Sambhalu, Panjangusht

DESCRIPTION –

a) Macroscopic:
Leaves palmately compound, petiole 2.5 – 3.8 cm long; mostly trifoliate, occasionally pentafoliate; in trifoliate leaf, leaflet lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, middle leaflet 5- 10 cm long and 1.6 -3.2 cm broad, with 1- 1.3 cm long petiolule, remaining two sub-sessile; in pentafoliate leaf inner three leaflets have petiolule and remaining two sub-sessile; surface glabrous above and tomentose beneath; texture,
leathery.

b) Microscopic:
Petiole – shows single layered epidermis having a number of unicellular, bicellular and uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes and also glandular trichomes with uni to tricellular stalk and uni to bicellular head; cortex composed of outer collenchymatous tissue and inner 6 – 8 layers of parenchymatous tissue; collenchyma well developed in basal region and gradually decreases in middle and apical regions; pericyclic fibres absent in basal region of petiole and present in the form of a discontinuous ring in apical region surrounding central horse shoe-shaped vascular bundle; a few smaller vascular bundles present ventrally between arms of central vascular bundle and two, or rarely three, bundles situated outside the arms.
Lamina – shows single layered epidermis having mostly unicellular hairs, bi and multicellular and glandular trichomes being rare; hypodermis 1 – 3 layered interrupted at places by 4- 8 palisade layers containing chlorophyll; a large number of veins enclosed by bundle sheath traverse mesophyll; stomata present only on the ventral surface, covered densely with trichomes; vein-islet and vein termination number of leaf are 23-25 and 5-7 respectively.
Powder – shows number of pieces or whole, uni-bi and multicellular covering trichomes, glandular trichomes, palisade tissues with hypodermis, and upper and lower epidermis, xylem vessels with pitted walls.

CONSTITUENTS – Alkaloids and Essential Oil.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION –
Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya
Guna : Laghu
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Kesya, Kaphasamaka, Vatasamaka, sophahara, Cakshushyam Vishaghna, Smtriprada, Anulomna

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Vatagajankusa Rasa, Mahavata Vidhvansana Rasa, Ykriplihara Lauha, Dasamula Taila, Trivikrama Rasa, Nirgundi Taila, Tribhuvan Kirti Rasa, Visha Tinduka Taila.

THERAPEUTIC USES – shula, sopha, Vatavyadhi, Amavata, Kushtha, Kandu, Kasa, Pradara, Adhmana, Piha Roga, Gulma, Aruci, Krimi, Vrana, Nadi Vrana, Karnashula, Shutika, Jvara

DOSE – 10-20 ml. (Swarasa).