Sunhti consists of dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roxb. (Fam. Zinglberaceae), widely cultivated, rhizomes dug in January-February, buds and roots removed, soaked overnight-in water, decorticated, and some times treated with lime and dried.
Sanskrit : Aushadha, Muhaushadha, Nigara, Visva, Visvabheshaja, sringavera, Visvi, Visvauishadha
Assamese : Adasuth, Aadar Shuth
Bengali : Suntha, Sunthi
English : Ginger root, Ginger
Gujrati : Sunth, Sundh, Suntha
Hindi : Sonth
Kannada : Shunthi
Kashmiri : Shonth
Malayalam : Chukku
Marathi : Sunth
Oriya : Sunthi
Punjabi : Sund
Tamil : Sukku, Chukku
Telugu : Sonthi, Sunti
Urdu : Sonth, Zanjabeel
Rhizome, laterally compressed bearing short, flattish, ovate, oblique, branches on upper side each having at its apex a depressed scar, pieces about 5-15 cm long, 1.5-6.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1.5 cm thick, externally buff coloured showing longitudinal striations and occasional loose fibres, fracture short, smooth, transverse surface exhibiting narrow cortex (about one-third of radius), a well-marked endodermis and a wide stele showing numerous scattered fibro-vascular bundles and yellow secreting cells, odour agreeable and aromatic, taste, agreeable and pungent.
Transverse section of rhizome shows cortex. of isodiametric thin-walled parenchyma with scattered vascular strands and numerous isodiametric idioblasts, about 40-80 µ In diameter containing a yellowish to reddish-brown oleo-resin, endodermis slightly thick walled, free from starch immediately inside endodermis a row of nearly continuous collateral bundles usually without fibres stele of thin-walled, parenchyma cells, arranged radially around numerous scattered, collateral vascular bundles, each consisting of a few unlignified, reticulate or spiral vessels upto about 70 µ in diameter,a group of phloem cells, unlignified, thin-walled, septate fibres upto about 30 µ wide and 600 µ long with small oblique slit, like pits, present, numerous scattered idioblasts, similar those of cortex, and associated with vascular bundles, also present, idioblasts about 8-20 µ wide and up to 130 µ long with dark reddish-brown contents: in single or in axial rows, adjacent to vessels, present, parenchyma of cortex and stele packed with flattened, rectangular, ovate, starch grains, mostly 5-15 µ – 30-60 µ long about 25 µ
wide and 7 µ thick, marked by five transverse striations.
CONSTITUENTS – Essential oil, pungent (gingerol and shogaol), resinous matter and starch.
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Katu
Guna : Laghu, Snigdha
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Anulomana, Dipana, Hridya, Picana, Vitakaphipaha, Asmadoshahara
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Saubhigyasunhti, Trikau, Saubhigya Vati, Vaisvinara Churna
THERAPEUTIC USES – Agnimindya, svisa, Adhmina, Amavita, Pindu, Udararoga
DOSE – 1-2 g of the drug in powder form.