Plants

Zizyphus mauritiana (stem Bark)

KOLA (Steam Bark)
Kola consists of dried stem bark of Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. Syn Z. jujuba Lam. (Fam Rhamnaceae); a small, evergreen sub-deciduous tree, wild and also extensively cultivated throughout the country and found on Himalayan region upto about 1370 m.

SYNONYMS –
Sansk. : Koli, Badara, Badari, Karkandhhu
Assam. : Bagori, Bayur
Beng. : Kula
Eng. : Jujube
Guj. : Bor
Hindi. : Desi Ber
Kan. : Boehannumara
Kash. : —
Mal. : Lanta
Mar. : Bor
Ori. : Borakali
Punj. : Desi ber
Tam. : Ilandai
Tel. : Regi, Regu
Urdu. : Ber

DESCRIPTION –

a) Macroscopic:
Bark available in pieces of variable length, usually 0.6 – 1 cm thick, external surface, blackish-grey, hard, rough due to deep furrows and fissures, exfoliating in irregular scales exposing inner brownish-red fibrous zones; no taste or odour

b) Microscopic:
Stem bark shows a thick portion of rhytidoma, made up of about 25 – 30 alternate bands of cork and dead cells of secondary cortex and secondary phloem, cork consists of thin-walled, rectangular, about 5-6 layered, crushed, parenchymatous cells, mostly filled with dark brown pigment; secondary cortex consists of round, oval and crushed rectangular cells; groups of stone cells, fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate scattered throughout rhytidorna; secondary phloem consists of sieve elements, phloem fibres, crystal fibres, phloem parenchyma, a few stone cells and phloem rays; phloem fibres arranged in alternate bands with phloem parenchyma, phloem parenchyma consists of rectangular, thin-walled cells, a few contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; crystal fibres present, divided into numerous chambers, each containing single prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate; phloem rays uniseriate to biseriate, upto 10 cells  high, consists of round, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; stone cells, mostly rectangular, occur associated In groups of 2-4 with bands of phloem fibres.

Powder – Reddish-brown; shows fragments of cork cells, phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips, crystal fibres, phloem rays, rectangular stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

CONSTITUENTS – Tannins and Alkaloids.
PROPERTIES AND ACTION –
Rasa : Kashaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksha
Virya : sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Stambhana, Vranasodhana, Visphotasamani

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Nyagrodhadi Kvatha Churna

THERAPEUTIC USES – Tvaka, Raktatisara, Vrana

DOSE – 3-5 g. (Powder).
10-2- g. (Decoction).